The Colosseum
"As long as the Colosseum, there will Rome when the Colosseum falls, Rome will also fall, but when Rome falls, the world will fall"

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The history of the Colosseum
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The Colosseum, the ancient Romans called "Anphitheatrum Flavlum", was built by Emperor Vespasian in 72 AD about, and inaugurated by his son Titus nell'80 d.c.
The building was occupied in out because of Nero palace, the Domus Aurea, built after the great fire of Rome in 64, which was to be enclosed a valley between the hills of Velia, Palatine, Celio, Oppio, and Fagutale and was crossed by a river that ran in direction of the Tiber along a route that roughly follows the current route of San Gregorio.
The presence of the pond was abundantly exploited to save on foundations, made of travertine pillars resting on a ring continuous concrete, with spacing only by some fognoli for scrolling of groundwater that otherwise would have flooded the entire area.
Nearby was a colossal statue of Nero, from which the Legend has it that the name derives Colosseum. After the killing of this Emperor's statue was rimodellata for Sol depict the god of the Sun, adding the appropriate solar corona. The Colossus was then moved from its original location to make room at the temple of Venus and Rome under Adriano. The site of colossal base of the statue after the move is currently marked by a modern base in tuff.

the original structure had to be very specific: for the reign of Vespasian and Domitian are notes inside the Colosseum of naumachie, ie naval battles. This may mean that originally the floor of the Colosseum had to be sufficient to enable a large quantity of water, maybe just maintaining the original pond born to the house of Nero.

The large audience of foundation, crown-shaped elliptical, had a thickness of thirteen metres and in its internal engineers Roman ricavarono a series of funnels for the outflow of rainwater. Once the high monument, proceeded all'interramento areas surrounding up to the current plan of the square that was then paved. The tavolati vast area of the arena poggiavano on a series of parallel walls, which were derived slots that lifts were used to transport the wild animals and gladiators.
For the underground of the Coliseum, illuminated by torches and oil lamps, accessible through four corridors along the axes of the building, so that it was possible achieve these environments also with the wagons. The cripotoportico north joined the underground of the Colosseum with the Ludus Magnus (the nearby barracks gladiators), where there was a series of buildings that house opened on a courtyard with gym discovery of elliptical shape, a miniature amphitheater. From the underground, at the stage where the emperor attended the shows, climb some stairs, which allowed direct link to the stage Imperial. From this part hypogeum another corridor, illuminated by skylights, which originally had a coating marble and decorated with stucco time paintings, was used by emperors to enter the Colosseum without being visas.
Inside the cavea with the steps for the seats of the spectators was divided into five sectors horizontal (maeniana), reserved for different categories of public sector lower, reserved for senators and their families, steps had extensive and downs that housed wooden seats (subsellia); followed the maenianum primum, with eight marble steps, maenianum secundum, divided into imum (lower) and summum (higher), yet with marble steps, and finally the maenianum summum, with about eleven steps inside the wooden porch that crowned the cavea (porticus in summa cavea): the remains of architectural latter belong to the remaking of age severiana or Gordian II.
The different sectors were separated by high podiums (precinctio), where opened the doors (vomitoria), protected by barriers marble (dating back to restoration of the second century AD steps are engraved on the indications of posts and balustrade on the podium were the names of subscribers senators to whom the seats were reserved lower.
Spectators reached their place entering the arcades their confidential. Each of the 74 arches for the public was identified by a number, engraved on the keystone, to allow spectators to reach rapidly to establish its place.

Over the years, fires, earthquakes and man inflissero of rather heavy blows at the Colosseum:
In 217 d.c. a fire destroyed the structures above, the building was restored by Eliogabalo and Alexander Severus, and was reopened in 222 without jobs were terminated. There were other fires in 250/252 and 320 which created damage to the Colosseum and there were other reconstructions under Constantine and King Odoacre (Odoacre, the first of King barbarians Rome) in the 476 to 483 d.c.
After the fall of the Roman Empire there were other works in rehabilitation Following another earthquake occurred around 484 or 508. At some point the great Amphitheatre Flavio was abandoned and in the sixth century area used for burial; later used as a dwelling.
Nell'alto the Coliseum became medieval fortress of Frangipane and Annibaldi until 1312, when the emperor intervened Henry VII that the riconsegn? Senate and then to the Roman people.
The earthquakes of 1231 and 1349 brought other damage at the Colosseum that now was left in ruins again. The sad fate had become a marble quarry used to construct new buildings among which the most famous, Palazzo Venezia and Stationery. The blocks were removed or travertine those killed were used by natural disasters, to build Palazzo Barberini in 1703 and the port of Ripetta. One said that famous was part of a description of "looting" the Colosseum says: "Quod not fecerunt Barbarians, fecerunt Barberini "(What the barbarians did not, did Barberini).
During the jubilee of 1675 assumed the character of sacred place in memory of the many Christian martyrs here condemned to torture and in 1744 Pope Benedict XIV consecrated to the passion of Christ and there was build the 15 stages in the Way of the Cross, in memory of Christian martyrs sacrificed inside the arena.
As a result of the structural damage came first restorations: spurs to support the ends remained standing of the facade were built in 1807 by Raffaele Stern and in 1827 by Luigi Maria Valadier, which ricompose new work in the structures already collapsed. Other restorations inside there were between 1831 and 1846. At the same time began to release the monument dall'interro with the excavations directed by Carlo Fea in 1811 and 1812 and those of Peter Rosa (1874-1875).
In 1938 and 1939 were completely excavated structures against the arena, partially altered by reconstructions.

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