The Colosseum
"As long as the Colosseum, there will Rome when the Colosseum falls, Rome will also fall, but when Rome falls, the world will fall"

Rome and the Colosseum
They were the emperors Flavi to provide for a first Rome amphitheatre stable and worthy of the greatness of capital: the work began during the reign of Vespasian in the area between Palatino, Esquilino and Celio, over and above the pond that had to find within the Domus Aurea of Nero. Vespasian, demagogicamente speaking, returned to people what the tyrant-Nero had wanted to ourselves. Individually, Colosseum name derives from giant representative Nero that it had wanted in public areas of its magnificent residence. Previously an amphitheatre was was commissioned by Augustus to Statilio Tauro, but it was a structure Provisional wooden.


But how did the inflow of viewers for shows?
Up to each of the 80 arches that mark the ellipse was a serial number, indicated with Roman numerals, which was also reported to be above of tesserae that each of the spectators had to bring with them: from arcades you then access to internal staircases and various sectors of cavea through vomitoria. Only four arches of the major planks were not numbered and the presence of traces of a porch outside the northward and stucco paintings in the corridor corresponding to suggest inputs for personalities. Maybe this was the entry reserved to the emperor, given the direct correspondence with the gallery director, or pulvinar, and probably was topped by a quadriga.

Today only remain inputs from the thirteenth to LIV. Below the main grandstand was a criptoportico covered vaulted and decorated with stucco and marble slabs, said "passage of Commodus": put in communication buildings claudiani on Celio with the podium.

Even in the cavea viewers could not swarming at will: this was divided into three main areas, so-called maeniana, a series of steps immediately after the fence and fourth floor in high, wooden, it's like piccionaia modern theater. Everyone had a precise location and there was no the ticket price to make a difference, because the entrance was free: was the social class to establish the place. The posts were closer all'arena reserved for senators, the first meniano to riders and so on. The plan wooden or maenianum summum, was reserved for women, admitted to by Augustus only games away from men: on tiers of the class which was reserved the place was always remembered. The only characters which was reserved the place name were the senators: on the steps their confidential fully implemented in marble and not only foderati, in fact, are still today present the names of various characters, sometimes deleted and replaced by others. The meniano supreme was concluded by 80 columns and granite cipolin with capitals of a composite and Corinthian.

The total was wandering on 40-45.000 people sitting, more about 5,000 standing at the top: If you interpret some data taken Catalogues from Regionari, a sort of list of the major monuments of antiquity, the posts could be raised up to about 73,000.

How were organized performances?
Originally the games were religious, but for most people, the populace, was the occasion for fun, to be ferocious behind someone else: a certain sacredness was nonetheless conferred by the presence of the Vestal Virgins, the Pontiff Massimo and dell'imperatore-god, or that divinizzato. A few days before the course of the games, was made advertising and the program could be posted in various parts of the city. For the most part was written in color red, which attracts most attention: the name of those who financed games and why these were made were the most interesting. Then there were the number, and not the name, gladiators, the place where combat, the date and the possible presence of velario, which is certainly not secondary to the attention of viewers. The evening was first offered to gladiators a sort of Last Supper, in which everything was their permission, then recommended their families to friends. In the Coliseum, the day after, was the combat. Towards the south-east was the port Libitinensis, beyond which was the region II Celimontana: here was located the spoliarum, the place where inservienti, often masked by Charon, the ferryman hellish, brought the gladiators dead or dying to be stripped of morals and weapons, and for ever from this port leaving the beasts killed and carried by bestiarii, who shared the meat, skins and bones, while they were instead placed nell'anfiteatro rhinos, hippos and elephants and all other animal too large for the hoist. Towards the north-west had the door Triumphalis, through which entered the pump gladiatoria which gave the green light to ludi: consisted of the promoter of the games, with littori and players, on the one portantina with different symbols on top, then the premiums for gladiators winners, weapons and combat wagons each carrying a gladiator ammantato of purple and gold. Then the athletes formed a procession appiedato that percorreva the round the arena until podium imperial Here salutavano raising his right arm and the famous phrase "Hail Caesar, morituri te salutant "(Health Caesar, those who are about to die greet you). Then armavano with weapons scheduled for the day, sometimes gold as sub Pertinax, od'argento as with Caesar: the Samnites with sword and scutum, a small rectangular shield, Thraces, sica, a small curved sword, and parma, a shield round or square, the retiarius, with network and trident, mirmillo, sull'elmo namesake fish. The fighting had sometimes comic connotation: to Make weapons of cask wood fighting dwarves, lame and women, then a tuba announcing the true combat and gladiators entered accompanied by their patrons that in case of weakness or boredom them frustavano and rimproveravano to give people the right fun. In the end, inch towards or not, leaving the results on a table, with close to name a letter: V for winner, M for missus, mandate, that is alive and equal to the enemy, P for dead. There was also a market for "pieces" of a gladiator: the second legends gave their blood physical vigor and courage, a piece of capacity was talisman against evil eye, the tip of his auction that melting hair of a bride index was prosperous married life. Until Christianity Journal perform the arena was a point also responsible for many free citizens, men and women, whatever their rank.

When the shows, the arena was filled with yellow sand from Monte Mario that was risistemata after each fight.

During the venationes any animal, as long as fierce or particular, went well from tigers to giraffes: when these barbarities were prohibited, many animals were extinct in different regions of the Empire, like the hippos in Nubia, in Ircania tigers, elephants in North Africa, lions in Mesopotamia.

"Besides" the Colosseum


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